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沙特掀反腐风暴,跟咱外贸人有什么关系?2017-11-13
【摘要】沙特阿拉伯向投资者抛了一个弧线球。

沙特阿拉伯向投资者抛了一个弧线球。

从大臣到王子,国王萨勒曼逮捕了一连串达官贵人。部分投资者因政府愿意采取行动打击腐败而感到鼓舞,但他们也担心下一个会是谁。

这个风波跟外贸人有什么关系呢?沙特是中东地区重要的国家,对于出口沙特或者其他中东地区的企业来说,我们需要对中东市场有一个全面的了解。

中东市场分析

 

以迪拜为例,作为中东地区的经济金融中心,迪拜是一个混合和流动性很大的市场。港口亦是亚非欧交汇点,很多货物都需要在那边中转。

整个中东地区,服装、家具、装饰材料、通信电缆、五金、小家电、汽配、小礼品、日化产品都是需求量极高的产品。

中东大多数采购商都是在做转口贸易,很多喜欢在批发市场直接下单,现金交易。也有很多是通过驻扎在中国的外商独资公司代采购,有些会定期来中国采购,有些直接委托中间商进行订货。

阿拉伯穆斯林间不是互通的。 大多数穆斯林不是阿拉伯人,而阿拉伯人并非都是穆斯林。

中东客户特点

1.除了一部分受过良好教育的客户英语比较好之外,大部分阿拉伯客户的英语比较一般。所以千万不要用很专业的商务英语进行沟通。他们的口头禅是 My friend, my brother. Best best price。在邮件沟通时,完全可以通过这种方式来拉近双方关系。

2.大多数客户,问完这个产品价格,然后问其他的产品,你和他说 Same same,他们就懂了。比如说数字,有些客户说 50 不说 Fifty 直接说 Five Zero。比如他们说 the red bag 会说成 the bag red。因为阿拉伯语便是这样的顺序,这是他们的思维惯性。

3.尽量保持简单,能用基础的词汇就用基础的。能说 ok 就不要说 well noted,能说 no need 不要和他绕 It doesn't require,更不要用艰涩难懂的词去为难他们。

4.负责中东市场的小伙伴可以学习阿拉伯语的你好、谢谢等,打电话或需要接待中东客户时能增加印象分。

5.部分中东客户爱面子,比较保守多疑。不要像个好奇宝宝一样去问中东客户一些很无厘头的问题,比如:为什么你不是穆斯林?为什么你们不能吃猪肉?斋戒你们不会饿吗?信仰,存在即合理,不理解也应该尊重。

6.有些中东客户不怎么守时,信用也不太好。但如果他是穆斯林,最大的顾忌是真主安拉。每一个虔诚的教徒,每天要祷告五次,最少也要三次。如果在交流的时候你得知这个细节,可以夸他:You are such a devout Muslim。或者说:Allah will surely bless you! 这样也是在给他提醒,安拉只会帮助守信用的好人。

7.有些中东客户比较缺乏耐心,在询价的时候尤其明显。如果两三天没收到回复,客户会转而寻找其他供应商。一旦出现交货期延迟的情况时,容易产生不满。所以在报价、说明交货期的时候一定要留有空间

8.值得一提的是他们有些会要求报 CFR 价格但不一定会及时下单。海运费 / 空运费是有效性的。因此,建议提供 FOB+运费(for reference)的价格。等客户确认订单,再核实准确的运费,规避风险。

和中东客户贸易往来应注意的细节

1.新客户要进行一定的背景调查,尤其对要的急、下单多的客户。下单前,问清楚具体的公司地址,并看能否委托当地其他客户进行实地验证。而对于老客户,即便建立了信任关系,也最好不要未付尾款就放货,风险太大。

2.中东不少商人不习惯使用信用证,因此金额小的用 100% TT,金额大的用下单付定金,出货前清尾款的方式。电商则用 PayPal 或环讯。

3.数量和质量一定要把好关,中东客户不太能接受意外的状况,产品一旦延误或者出现质量问题,可能会要求降价或者甚至不合理的赔偿。

4.很多客户更喜欢在微信或者 WhatsApp 上沟通。谈定价格后一定要截图并备份。如果有细节需要确认,等客户一句 ok 后再去安排,一定要得到稳妥的确认。

5.不少中东客户喜欢货比多家,并且索要样板 / 色样。一定要收取相应的样板费,或者即使货值不高,可以免费提供样板,也不能被客户提到的数量打动,而承担其他费用。

出口中东注意事项

1.必须有 SASO 认证证书

沙特进口商必备的一份清关 CoC 证书,进入沙特海关时有必须持有 SASO 认证证书方可顺利清关,如果没有 SASO 证书的产品会被沙特港口海关拒绝入境。

2.办理 SASO 认证的流程

第一步资料的审核;第二步现场验货。

资料审核主要针对的是产品,必须提供对应出口产品的安全检测报告。如果没有,可以委托第三方进行测试办理有效合格报告。

验货主要是评定产品是否有符合沙特要求的 Marking 信息。这一点需要特意强调,产品未生产前请先确认一下 Marking 是否符合沙特要求,避免多次返工。

3.提前核定 SASO 认证的费用避免受骗

办理沙特 SASO 认证主要分为这三部分的费用:产品检测、现场验货、SASO 证书费。

4.原产地证CO

须由制造商或出口商出具原产地证明,其中要包括船(航班)名、启运日期、所有商品的制造商的名字、国籍、带有街道名称的地址。另外,所有商品或部件都必须详加说明。要有一段文字声明该文件真实准确,并经签字生效。如果货物不是出口国特有的产品,需要另外附上一份经公证的附加声明。

原产地证明中还要包括沙特进口商的名称和地址,货物描述及船运公司的地址。

一般出口沙特客户要求办理贸促会出具的原产地证CO比较多,然后在第五栏加盖商会印章,简称原产地证商会认证。原产地证开船前后都可以办理的。原产地证可以第三方公司出具的,显示双抬头,代理公司抬头O/B,或者VIA本公司抬头,不影响客户清关。

5.其它注意事项

带电的产品出口沙特需要切记沙特电压 220 / 380V60Hz。随着中东市场要求越来越高,局部电器产品已经强制要求 Gmark 认证;车辆以及轮胎也都需要 Gmark 认证,轮胎与此同时还需要满足轮胎标签法规要求。

中东地区休息表

巴基斯坦政府部门每周一至周五上午上班,周五下午休息,周六正常上班,周日继续休息。工作日的工作时间一般为上午 9 点至下午 3 点。